Archive for hannaa

“Untitled”, de Jean Michel Basquiat, adjuge pour plus de 100 millions de dollars.

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Le monde de l’art contemporain a connu une évolution la semaine dernière après la vente d’une peinture de Jean Michel Basquiat a plus de 110.5 millions de dollars.

 

Le 17 mai 2017, une peinture sans titre de ‘The Radiant Child” vendu pour uniquement 19000$ par deux collectionneurs d’art, Jerry et Emily Spiegel, a été adjuge pour la somme de 110.5 millions de dollars chez Sotheby’s. Soit la deuxième peinture la plus cher qui a été vendu dans le monde de l’art. Jean Michel Basquiat rejoint aujourd’hui le panthéon des artistes les plus cher de l’histoire, aux cotes de Picasso, Munch, Bacon et même mentor et ami, Andy Warhol.

 

 

 

Né a Brooklyn, d’un père d’origine Haïtienne et d’une mère de descendance Petro Ricaine, Jean Michel Basquiat a commence en tant qu’artiste de rue et faisait parti du groupe d’artiste de graffiti SAMO. L’enfant Radiant, comme il a été nomme a l’époque, a commence au hasard a écrit et dessine sur les mur de Brooklyn et de New York. A l’époque, Andy Warhol avait déjà son nom dans le monde de l’art contemporain et modern, et s’était déjà crée une signature et une identité. Jean Michel Basquiat, fan du créateur du Pop Art, l’a rencontré dans un restaurant et ensemble se sont mis à créer des peintures et un concept artistique spécial et marquant dans l’histoire de l’art. Jean Michel Basquiat est donc grâce à Andy Warhol, rentre directement dans le domaine artistique de l’époque, qui était très underground. Il est ainsi devenu ami entre autre avec David Bowie, Lou Reed, et est même sorti avec Madonna.

Jean Michel Basquiat n’a connu que 7 ans de vie d’artiste, comme il est mort a que 27 ans dans son studio de Manhattan.

 

“Untitled” est une peinture, a l’huile et de peinture a vaporisateur, de 1.83m par 1.73m qui représente une tète noir, ou un crane noir, inquiétante, sur un fond bleu calme et satisfaisant auquel se mélange et rouge et jaune vifs qui font ressortir l’inquiétude et les frissons de l’oeuvre. Cette dernière rempli de symboles et d’iconographie, a signale l’entrée de Basquiat dans la partie du monde artistique restreinte et très rare. Lorsqu’il a peint cette oeuvre en 1982 il n’était encore qu’un artiste de rue qui vivait a New York, mais Basquiat allait très rapidement devenir “le seul artiste de couleur qui participait d’une façon ou d’une autre dans le monde artistique a l’époque” dis Jerry Saltz, critique d’art.

Sotheby’s appelle cette peinture “un chef d’oeuvre pratiquement incomparable”. Le prix de départ de cette pièce a été fixe a 57 millions de dollars, quasiment le record pour celui qui se fit connaitre sous le pseudonyme de SAMO. Mais cette pièce a fait face a un détournement de situation, après 10 minutes d’enchères, une durée très inhabituelle, et après une forte dispute entre un acheteur dans la salle et un autre qui suivait la vente par téléphone. Le premier est allé jusqu’a 97 millions de dollars, laissant finalement l’acheteur au téléphone l’emporter avec une offre de 98 millions de dollars, auquel faudrait ajouter les frais et commissions.

Le tableau a ainsi été acheté par ‘homme d’affaire Japonais et collecteur d’art Yusaku Maezawa. Celui ci, fondateur du géant du commerce en ligne Start Today, a déclaré qu’il comptait prêter l’œuvre pour des expositions avant de l’accrocher dans son propre musée, situé à Chiba, sa ville natale. Maezawa est un grand fan de l’artiste, il a deja acheter d’autres oeuvres du même artiste a aussi de très grosses sommes. Il a aussi des oeuvres de Jeff Koons ou même Richard Prince. Ce collectionneur a plus tard poster une photo sur Instagram avec sa peinture en disant “ quand j’ai vu cette peinture j’était rempli d’émotion et d’éblouissement envers ce travail et mon amour pour l’art. Mais avant, je souhaite prêter cette pièce – qui n’a pas été vue par le public depuis plus de 30 ans – à des institutions et des expositions à travers le monde ». « J’espère que cela apporte autant de joie aux autres que cela, et que ce chef-d’œuvre de Basquiat, âgé de 21 ans, inspire nos générations futures ».

 

 

 

 

Comment est ce qu’un jeune artiste rebelle de rue est passé a vendre des petits dessin sur papier a 50$ en 1980 jusqu’a aujourd’hui avoir une peinture vendu aux enchères a des demi millions de dollars ou même a plus de millions de dollars?

Il y’aurait plusieurs raisons qui aussi expliquerai l’évolution du marche de l’art et du monde artistique en tant qu’univers même.

En effet, c’est la combinaison entre le monde de l’art et son marche qui sont tellement imprévisibles et puissants et entre un talent fort et brut, une biographie irrésistible et accablante.

 

Pourtant est ce logique d’avoir une oeuvre d’art vendu a tellement cher alors que le reste du monde est en train de tomber dans le désespoir?

 

 

Hanaa Ojeil.

Nouvelle Vague de Youtube Channels: Musique d’Animation

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Le monde de l’animation est aujourdh’ui un monde énorme, accessible très facilement, surtout via internet. Que ce soit les jeux vidéo ou les séries animées, il s’agit d’une source de divertissement envahissante. Mais comment se fait-il que le charme de ce monde atteigne tellement de sociétés différentes? Il est sûr qu’une infinité de réponses nous viendrons à l’esprit, mais nous allons nous intéresser à une seule: la musique ! Ce n’est pas une coincidence que n’importe quelle personne reconnaisse la musique du jeu vidéo Super Mario Bros par exemple. En effet, il existe aujourd’hui une vague de jeunes gens qui s’intéressent beaucoup à la musique des jeux vidéos, et qui en font leur profession, ou passe-temps, ou même leur source de popularité. Navigons sur Youtube, et cherchons ensemble quelques « channels ». Nous nous intéresserons spécifiquement à 4 channels, et donc 4 personnes ou groupes de personnes qui font des reprises de morceaux des jeux videos; chacun à sa manière, son style et le genre de musique qu’il pratique.

 

Commençons par le plus classique, et littéralement classique: la musique classique. Laurence Manning, canadienne, est une passionée de musique classique et de musique de jeux vidéos. Elle décide alors de recomposer des pièces de son choix, à la manière de Mozart, Shostakovich, et autres, ce qui en fait une pure oeuvre d’art. Elle s’intéresse alors à Super Mario Bros, The legend of Zelda, Trifantasy, Leaugue of legends, Final Fantasy et autres. Qui aurait dit qu’une jeune femme qui a reçu trois bourses d’excellence au doctorat, octroyées par le Comité d’attribution des bourses des 2e et 3e cycles de la Faculté des études supérieures et postdoctorales (FESP) de l’Université de Montréal, aurait plongé dans le monde des jeux vidéos, mais cette fois à la manière des grands compositeurs classiques! Ces jeux vidéo s’étendent du plus ancien au plus récent, mais ayant tous un même impact sur la masse: un divertissement et attachement important.

 

 

 
Laurence Manning fonde aussi un deuxième channel intitulé Trifantasy Trio, qui est un trio classique formé de Laurence elle-même, Jean Despax (violoniste), et Karine Bouchard (violoncelliste). Ce channel consiste aussi à interpréter des morceaux de musique de jeux vidéo, mais cette-fois-ci à trois.

 

 

 

Penchons-nous vers un autre genre d’interprétation. Un genre plus moderne que le classique;le rock. With Ether est un groupe composé de deux jeunes hommes Simon Leong et Alasdair Poon. L’un chinois de malaisie, et l’autre anglo-chinois. Ces deux musiciens se sont rencontrés à l’université durant les cours de musique, et c’est ainsi qu’ils sont devenus très amis et ont commencé leur chemin avec leur channel. Aussi dans le monde des jeux vidéo, ils recomposent et interprètent des morceaux de Skyrim, Pokemon, Final Fantasy, Assassin’s creed et autres. Leur style est plutot penché vers les jeux de combat, vu que leur genre de musique est favorable à ceci. Mais encore, With Ether ne se limite pas aux jeux uniquement, mais aussi aux séries animées dont les « soundtracks » sont exceptionnels. Power rangers, Naruto, Dragon Ball et autres se retrouvent alors entre les cordes de leurs guitares. Malgré le fait que Simon et Al ne sont pas actuellement dans le même pays, ils continuent quand même à jouer et mixer, pour enfin nous montrer leur performance en « split-screen ». Ces deux jeunes hommes ordinaires, tout comme nous et vous chers lecteurs, ont actuellement 27723 subscribers, uniquement par leur musique provenant de l’animation.

 

 

 

Quoi de plus charmant qu’un duo piano-violon? Joshua Chiu, violoniste, ouvre son channel Youtube avec son compagnon pianiste. Leur genre n’est pas aussi classique que Laurence; il reste contemporain mais unique. With Ether attaque les jeux videos, les séries animées, mais aussi les films produits par Studio Ghibli, et donc les exceptionnels films de Hayao Miyazaki. Dans les jeux videos, il s’agit de Final Fantasy (jeu vidéo énormément célèbre et répandu) aussi, Pokemon, The Legend of Zelda et autres. Pokemon est considéré initialement en tant que série, et pour continuer dans la même vague, With Ether interprètent des morceaux des séries de Disney comme Pokahontas, Aladin, la Petite Sirène, the Lion King, et autres. Full metal alchemist est aussi une série très nouvelle dont la musique est de plus en plus répandue, et aussi jouée par ce groupe. Concernant les films, il s’agit du fameux Spirited Away, et Howl’s Moving Castle. C’est clairement une grande variété de séries, animations, et émotions. Ce groupe touche les âmes les plus sensibles aux plus dures.

 

Ainsi, toute une vague de jeunes hommes et femmes s’intéressent à la musique du monde de l’animation, élément fondateur et crucial de ces images. Nous pouvons trouver aussi tout un orchestre qui ne joue que des morceaux provenant de jeux video, comme VGO online. Ce groupe élève la musique de l’animation « to a whole new level » comme on le dit. Et ainsi de suite, reste-t-il encore beaucoup de channels et groupes à découvrir, tous passionnés et impliqués dans le monde de l’animation.

 

 

Nour Yazbeck

 

Benefits Of Alcohol

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Throughout the 10,000 or so years that humans have been drinking fermented beverages, they’ve also been arguing about their advantages and disadvantages. The debate still rages today, with a lively back-and-forth over whether alcohol is good for you or bad for you. It’s safe to say that alcohol is both a tonic and a poison. The difference lies mostly in the dose.

In some studies, the term “moderate drinking” refers to less than one drink per day, while in others it means three or four drinks per day. Exactly what constitutes “a drink” is also fairly fluid. In fact, even among alcohol researchers, there’s no universally accepted standard drink definition. In the U.S., one drink is usually considered to be 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1½ ounces of spirits (hard liquor such as gin or whiskey). Each delivers about 12 to 14 grams of alcohol. The definition of moderate drinking is something of a balancing act. Moderate drinking sits at the point at which the health benefits of alcohol clearly outweigh the risks. The latest consensus places this point at no more than one to two drinks per day for men, and no more than one drink per day for women. This is the definition used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and is widely used in the United States.

The active ingredient in alcoholic beverages, a simple molecule called ethanol, affects the body in many different ways. It directly influences the stomach, brain, heart, gallbladder, and liver. It affects levels of lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) and insulin in the blood, as well as inflammation and coagulation. It also alters mood, concentration, and coordination.

More than 100 prospective studies show an inverse association between moderate drinking and risk of heart attack, ischemic (clot-caused) stroke, peripheral vascular disease, sudden cardiac death, and death from all cardiovascular causes. The effect is fairly consistent, corresponding to a 25 percent to 40 percent reduction in risk.

The connection between moderate drinking and lower risk of cardiovascular disease has been observed in men and women. It applies to people who do not apparently have heart disease, and also to those at high risk for having a heart attack or stroke or dying of cardiovascular disease, including those with type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and existing cardiovascular disease. The benefits also extend to older individuals. The idea that moderate drinking protects against cardiovascular disease makes sense biologically and scientifically. Moderate amounts of alcohol raise levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, or “good” cholesterol), and higher HDL levels are associated with greater protection against heart disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has also been linked with beneficial changes ranging from better sensitivity to insulin to improvements in factors that influence blood clotting, such as tissue type plasminogen activator, fibrinogen, clotting factor VII, and von Willebrand factor. Such changes would tend to prevent the formation of small blood clots that can block arteries in the heart, neck, and brain, the ultimate cause of many heart attacks and the most common kind of stroke. {kjsdk}

Part of a national 1985 health interview survey showed that moderate drinkers were more likely than non-drinkers or heavy drinkers to be at a healthy weight, to get seven to eight hours of sleep a night, and to exercise regularly. Researchers have statistically accounted for such confounders, and they do not come close to accounting for the relationship between alcohol and heart disease. This, plus the clearly beneficial effects of alcohol on cardiovascular risk factors, makes a compelling case that alcohol itself, when used in moderation, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. The most definitive way to investigate the effect of alcohol on cardiovascular disease would be with a large trial in which some volunteers were randomly assigned to have one or more alcoholic drinks a day and others had drinks that looked, tasted, and smelled like alcohol but were actually alcohol free. Many of these trials have been conducted for weeks, and in a few cases months, to look at changes in the blood, but a long-term trial to test experimentally the effects of alcohol on cardiovascular disease over many years will probably never be done. Nevertheless, the connection between moderate drinking and cardiovascular disease almost certainly represents a cause-and-effect relationship. The comparatively low rate of heart disease in France despite a diet that includes plenty of butter and cheese has become known as the French paradox. Some experts have suggested that red wine makes the difference, but other research suggests that beverage choice appears to have little effect on cardiovascular benefit.

The benefits of moderate drinking aren’t limited to the heart. In the Nurses’ Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and other studies, gallstones and type 2 diabetes were less likely to occur in moderate drinkers than in non-drinkers. The emphasis here, as elsewhere, is on moderate drinking. In a meta-analysis of 15 original prospective cohort studies that followed 369,862 participants for an average of 12 years, no benefit was observed for heavy drinkers who consumed more than 48 grams of alcohol (the equivalent of four drinks) a day. The social and psychological benefits of alcohol can’t be ignored. A drink before a meal can improve digestion or offer a soothing respite at the end of a stressful day; the occasional drink with friends can be a social tonic. These physical and psychic effects may contribute to health and well-being.

What you drink (beer or wine) doesn’t seem to be nearly as important as how you drink. Having seven drinks on a Saturday night and then not drinking the rest of the week isn’t at all the equivalent of having one drink a day. The weekly total may be the same, but the health implications aren’t. Among participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, consumption of alcohol on at least three or four days a week was inversely associated with the risk for myocardial infarction. The amount consumed, less than 10 grams a day or more than 30 grams, didn’t seem to matter as much as the regularity of consumption. A similar pattern was seen in Danish men.

Despite these benefit, alcohol’s two-faced nature shouldn’t come as a surprise. Heavy drinking is a major cause of preventable death in most countries. In the U.S., alcohol is implicated in about half of fatal traffic accidents. Heavy drinking can damage the liver and heart, harm an unborn child, increase the chances of developing breast and some other cancers, contribute to depression and violence, and interfere with relationships.

The bottom line you should balance how you drink and you should drink responsibly. Given the complexity of alcohol’s effects on the body and the complexity of the people who drink it, blanket recommendations about alcohol are out of the question. Because each of us has unique personal and family histories, alcohol offers each person a different spectrum of benefits and risks. Whether or not to drink alcohol, especially for “medicinal purposes,” requires careful balancing of these benefits and risks.

Stephano Moundelek

Athletes Salaries

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During the early 1900s, professional athletes such as baseball players in the United States, like “Shoeless Joe” Jackson and Eddie Cicottee earned $6,000-$7,000 per year, which is the equivalent to $46,000-$5,000 in present day. These rates are comparable to blue collar worker today, who earns between $29,000-$40,000 per year. Although athletes still earn more than blue-collar workers today, wages earned by professional athletes in the 1900s were still moderate compared to present day. There has been a shift in the scales of the structural process of salaries acquires by professional athletes. There have been three main periods: the reserve clause period 1965-1974, the transition period 1976-1977, and the free agency period 1986-1990.The free agency period paved the way for professional sport teams and institutions to compete for talented players. This period, which is still ongoing today, gives the player a freedom to sign a contract with any team, and to seek out offers from other teams.

This article will present several factors as to why athletes are not overpaid, by discussing the characteristics of a professional athlete, the athlete as a “real” profession, the athlete in today’s socio-economic standard, and the athlete’s life in relation to society. Through these factual presentations, it can be deduced that athletes are not overpaid, but their salaries merely reflect the socio-economic norms of the twenty-first century.

The life of a professional athlete requires a high level of commitment and dedication. The average time spent training by a professional athlete is around 23 hours a week, over a period of 8 years. Although training methods and regimen vary from each athlete, a survey on professional athletes which states that all athletes have the common characteristics of including training and diet into their lifestyle over a prolonged period of time in order to reach a world class level in their field. Other than the rigorous training that an athlete has to maintain throughout his professional career, athletes also have to face a high risk of injury during training or a game, which if caused can result in damaging their career. For example, the injury faced by David Busst in 1996, who used to play professional football for Manchester United, broke his leg in two places on the pitch, which brought an end to his rising career. Due to his inability to participate in sports again, he was forced to retire and coach football teams. Furthermore, an athlete’s career is short-lived in comparison to other careers. The general retirement age for an athlete is 33, whereas in other working fields people can work until the age of 65-68, which is considered to be the normal age of retirement. It is also important to note, that not all athletes reach a high level of fame and success. The odds of an athlete reaching a professional level is very slim, due to the extreme level of competition in the sport, and the effects scouts have on picking athletes. Furthermore, it can be stated that by assessing all the factors and characteristics surrounding an athletes lifestyle, and the risks he has to take during his life and career, are equivalent to the amount of money earned per year.

There are several comparisons made between the income earned between professional athletes and people in other professions. There is a general claim, which states that the disparity between incomes earned in these careers is unfair. However, it is important to stop placing athletes and other professions in the same category. When assessing the income earned by athletes, one should make a comparison between athletes. There lays a large gap in the income earned by athletes. Not all athletes are paid high salaries per year, and this is due to the free agency norm. When assessing the average salaries of non-professional athletes in 2006, the salaries ranged from $125,000 to $11,000. In comparison to salaries earned by blue-collar workers that year, the Bureau of Labour Statistics shows that the average salary earned was $36,500. Much generalization has been made by the public that all athletes are overpaid, however, a large number of athletes who play for leagues under the age of 21 suffer the consequences of free agency, who are signed by teams and get low rates of pay, even though they put in the same effort and time as their experienced teammates. The latter is evident in European football, where there is a large gap in salaries between the players, as Simmons states, “most European footballers will settle for a modest fraction of Beckham’s compensation”. Simmons states that, only a few athletes have “celebrity appeal” such as David Beckham or Thierry Henry. Furthermore, their status as a “celebrity” is what attracts teams to place a high bid on the player, and for the player to be signed with several endorsements. For example, David Beckham’s contract with LA Galaxy in the United States was worth around $180 million.

There is a high link between the amount of endorsements and “broadcast rights” and high income’s for football players in Germany. Yet there is a large gap between players in “top division” European football and players ranking in lower divisions. Thus, players in top division football attract more TV time and endorsements, which is a direct cause of high salaries earned by some professional athletes. Moreover, it is important to reaffirm that audiences tend to make generalizations about athletes being overpaid, however the reality reflects that only a select few have ‘made it’ to an elite level and were paid with large incomes.

Several studies have founded that society plays a dominant role in affecting the salaries of athletes. By buying overpriced match tickets, team merchandise, sports gear or wear, travelling to watch professional games, and even subscribing to TV channels to view these games, are all reasons for the continuous increasing rate of salaries for professional athletes.

There is a general double standard when it comes to salaries, as fans always want the “best player” to be part of the team they support. Fans want athletes in their team to be extremely talented, well poised, and are regarded as a role model to younger generations. When compared to teachers, who are also role model for children, it can be stated that a large audience of millions of people does not view teachers. The large amount of televised and documented attention an athlete receives causes him to always have to be well groomed and mannered. There is also a large invasion of privacy, as the aspects of an athlete’s life are always under scrutiny. Thus, the notion of seeing highly paid athletes as “unfair” is socially constructed and is void, as society is the root cause of formulating this needed perception of having and supporting professional athletes.

Athletes are constantly in the spotlight. They have to sacrifice their privacy and time spent with family, dedicating most of their time performing activities to boost the image of the team. Thompson states that athletes are always on a “platform”. They are constantly on national television, signing autographs, or being interviewed. They have to portray this image of a successful role model for younger generations, whereby they can connect to a highly respected figure in society, and aim to work hard to be successful as well. Also, athletes have to constantly work on their image to please society. If any mistakes are made during a game, or with any personal decision, it badly affects their image. Thus, they are constantly being judged in relation to their performance.

There is a lot of criticism towards localized spending on stadiums and arenas for top-level professional teams. In the USA for example, $8 billion was spent between 2000-2009 in building stadiums and sport facilities. This large amount of spending shows that there are large economic benefits that a country gains from enlarging and endorsing professional sports institutions and clubs. This can be viewed in the slogan used in San Fransisco when the new stadium was being built which states “Build the Stadium-Create the Jobs!” Moreover, the sports industry is a large business, which attracts a large amount of tourists and private investors. So even though some professional athletes are paid high salaries, their income is being filtered back into the GDP of the country when large games take place, such as Premier League or Champions League in European football.

To conclude, from the factors assessed in this paper, it can be stated that the perception of professional athletes in society will not change over time. There is an ongoing double standard whereby fans and audiences always state that being a professional athlete is not a ‘real job’ compared to other occupations, and that they are highly overpaid. However, it is essential to take a deeper look into the characteristics of an athlete, his routine, hardships, and what the athlete provides for society. An athlete is always under social criticism, and is expected to behave in a way, which is exemplary to younger generations. An athlete is meant to provide a positive impact on society, which is something that is priceless. Also, the concept of a professional athlete has brought great economic opportunities to local communities, whereby local jobs can be created, and the government can benefit from factors such as tourism and the opportunities for private investment. In conclusion, the athlete provides a positive impact on society, and that in return is priceless.

 

 

Saly Sadek